White Supremacy Geste
Doch in jüngster Zeit wurde die Okay-Geste auch mit Anhängern der rassistischen "White Supremacy"-Ideologien in Verbindung gebracht. Das Handzeichen wird zunehmend von White-Supremacy-Anhängern genutzt. Die Geste wurde ursprünglich zum Scherz umgedeutet. Gesten oder Handzeichen bedeuten nicht überall dasselbe. Auch Richard Spencer, ein White-Supremacy-Aktivist, posiert mit der Geste und.
Das Okay-Handzeichen wird jetzt offiziell als Hasssymbol gelistetAuch in den USA wird die neue White Power-Geste inzwischen verstärkt diskutiert. Erst im Dezember kam es zu einem neuen Vorfall, als. Das Okay-Handzeichen als Symbol für white power zu benutzen, der extremen Rechten absichtlich begannen, die Geste zu verwenden“. Ein Zuschauer der ARD-Show zeigt eine Geste, die auch der die OK-Handgeste sei ein Zeichen von der White-Supremacy-Bewegung.
White Supremacy Geste Navigation menu VideoTrump Sidesteps Condemning White Supremacy At Debate - NBC News Laut ADL benutzen zumindest manche Rassisten Trading 212 Test Geste inzwischen ohne Ironie oder satirischen Hintergedanken, sondern um ihre Überzeugungen ausdrücken. Icon: Menü Menü. Es sei das sogenannte Kreis- oder Brunnenspiel gewesen, das er häufig mit einem Freund spiele.
White supremacy is also evident in the way communities of color are systematically over-policed in terms of unjust harassment and unlawful arrest and brutalization , and under-policed in terms of police failing to serve and protect ; and in the way that experiencing racism takes a societal-wide negative toll on the life expectancy of Black people.
These trends and the white supremacy they express are fueled by the false belief that society is fair and just, that success is the result of hard work alone, and an overall denial of the many privileges that whites in the U.
Further, these structural trends are fostered by the white supremacy that lives within us, though we may be wholly unaware that it is there. Both conscious and subconscious white supremacist beliefs are visible in social patterns that show, for instance, that university professors give more attention to potential students who are white ; that many people regardless of race believe that lighter-skinned Black people are smarter than those with dark skin ; and that teachers punish Black students more harshly for the same or even lesser offenses committed by white students.
So while white supremacy might look and sound different than it has in centuries past, and may be experienced differently by people of color, it is very much a twenty-first-century phenomenon that must be addressed through critical self-reflection, the rejection of white privilege, and anti-racist activism.
In addition to public events, white supremacists frequently organize barbecues, parties, hate music concerts, and other social gatherings for themselves and like-minded people.
The following examples from recent months illustrate this type of activity:. Paris, Tennessee, April Members of the Supreme White Alliance, a racist skinhead group, held a cookout and cross-burning on private property for a handful of members.
Unfortunately, white supremacists do not always limit themselves to protests and barbecues, but instead choose to engage in criminal activity, often of the most violent sort, from hate crimes murders to acts of terrorism.
This report has already alluded to a number of such acts, including the attacks in Charleston, Overland Park, Oak Creek, and Austin, among others.
Sadly, those acts are hardly alone. White supremacists are the single greatest source of extremist-related violence in the United States, surpassing right-wing anti-government extremists, domestic Islamic extremists, and left-wing extremists and anarchists.
Indeed, one need only look at extremist-related murders to see how large the white supremacist movement looms in the landscape of extremist violence in the United States.
The Anti-Defamation League maintains a database of murders and killings that have some sort of extremist connection of any kind. Although the data, which goes back decades, undercounts the true number of such killings, it represents a minimum figure that allows some basic quantification.
Preliminarily, ADL data for the past 10 years—from July through June —indicate at least murders occurred in the United States with some sort of extremist connection.
In other words, the vast majority of extremist-related murders in the United States are committed by people with ties to the white supremacist movement.
The data also reveal a surprising aspect of white supremacist violence. If one takes the killings related to white supremacy and analyzes them for the role that white supremacist ideology may have played in the killings, a surprising fact emerges.
Of the murders, only 63 were deaths in which white supremacist ideology played a primary or secondary role.
What does this figure tell us? First, that white supremacists can kill for many reasons, not just reasons related to their cause.
It speaks to the fact that white supremacy attracts many people who have violent inclinations, inclinations that can play themselves out just as easily in non-political situations as political ones.
It indicates, too, the degree to which the movement accepts violence as a solution for all sorts of perceived problems. Many of the killings are, in essence, crimes of passion, including killing spouses, girlfriends, and children, as well as murders in situations such as road rage or bar fights.
An analysis of the killings also reveals the very high degree to which traditional crime is a common practice among white supremacists—and not just among members of white supremacist prison gangs.
White supremacists commit non-ideological murders at a much higher rate than other extremist movements. However, even if non-ideological killings were to be removed altogether from these statistics, white supremacists would still be the most deadly type of domestic extremist in the United States, perpetrating approximately half of all the murders in which ideology played a primary or secondary motivation.
These figures are borne out by other measurements as well. For example, between and , the Anti-Defamation League has identified 54 separate shooting incidents between police and extremists of any sort in the United States.
The bulk of these involve full-fledged shootouts between police and extremists. There are also a few incidents in which extremists fired at police but police did not need to return fire in order to apprehend them, as well as a few incidents in which extremists tried to fire at police or threatened them in some other way and were then shot by police.
White supremacists have also engaged in a wide variety of conspiracies, plots and terrorist acts. Some of these violent acts have already been described earlier in this report, but the true number is considerably greater, as these examples from just the past few years indicate:.
According to an affidavit, Kircus constructed a bomb out of automobile airbags he took from the auto shop where he worked.
According to evidence presented during his plea proceedings, Fullmore sold the guns in order to fund violence against minority-related targets.
In June , FBI agents arrested Fullmore after he told an undercover agent that he wanted to fire-bomb a local Catholic church in a Hispanic community in the Claxton, Georgia, area.
On the run, he died a few days later in a shootout with Texas law enforcement officers. Ebel was a member of the Crew, a Colorado-based white supremacist prison gang.
The plot was uncovered after a teacher at Russell County High School in Seale, Alabama, found a journal containing plans of an attack and alerted police.
In April , Shrout pleaded guilty to first-degree attempted assault. A weapon of mass destruction charge was dropped.
Johnson pleaded guilty to being a felon in possession of a weapon and was sentenced to 15 years in prison. Thomas pleaded guilty to possession with intent to distributed methamphetamines, and received 10 years in prison.
In court, Pederson said he targeted the Oregon man because he believed he was Jewish and the Californian man because he was black.
After their arrest, the couple admitted they had been headed to Sacramento to find a prominent Jewish person to kill. Harpham confessed to planting a backpack along the parade route containing a pipe bomb designed to be triggered by a radio frequency system.
Luckily, the bomb failed to go off. Harpham was sentenced to 32 years in prison. Luckily, the couple was not injured. All four ended up pleading guilty to federal hate crimes charges; another defendant, Wendy Treybig, also a white supremacist, pleaded guilty to obstructing justice in connection with the incident.
He was sentenced to two years in prison after pleading guilty. Prosecutors in the case alleged that Harbin made the explosive devices to be used during vigilante operations on the Mexican border and designed them to cause the most carnage possible.
These examples demonstrate that, as disturbing as white supremacist propaganda and protests are, it is the violence of the movement that poses the true danger, the violence that reared its hateful head so recently in Charleston, South Carolina, at the Emanuel AME Church.
White supremacists will try to spread their message, they will try to recruit more people into the movement, and occasionally they will succeed.
But it would take a major change in American attitudes—a drastic departure that would radically go against the grain of the last years of American history—to make the dreams of white supremacists become reality.
The movement is likely to remain on the fringe, to be opposed rather than accepted by most other Americans.
Unfortunately, the dreams of white supremacists need not come true in order for their passions to turn the lives of other Americans into nightmares.
It only takes a few people with hate in their heart to wound a city or a nation. White supremacists have enough adherents for that—and more than enough hate.
Because of this, every community and every institution in this country must guard against the very real threat that white supremacists still pose today.
Skip Navigation. Expand search Search. Deadly act of domestic terrorism. Dylann Storm Roof, suspect in Charleston shooting spree.
White Supremacist Ideology. The Fourteen Words. Skip Navigation. Expand search Search. Extremism A concept used to describe religious, social or political belief systems that exist substantially outside of belief systems more broadly accepted in society i.
Christian Identity Christian Identity is a religious sect and one of the longstanding segments of the white supremacist movement. Domestic Terrorism Terrorism is a pre-planned act or attempted act of significant violence by one or more non-state actors in order to further an ideological, social or religious cause, or to harm perceived opponents of such causes.
Radical Right See Extreme Right; the terms are synonymous. Far Right See Extreme Right; the terms are mostly synonymous. Hate Crime A hate crime is a criminal act against a person or property in which the perpetrator chooses the victim because of the victim's real or perceived race, religion, national origin, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability or gender.
Holocaust Denial Holocaust Denial is a type of antisemitic propaganda that emerged after World War II and which uses pseudo-history to deny the reality of the systematic mass murder of six million Jews by the Nazis and their allies during World War II.
Neo-Nazis Neo-Nazis are one of the main segments of the white supremacist movement in the United States and many other countries.
Racist Skinheads Racist skinheads are a variation of the skinhead subculture that arose in Great Britain the late s and early s and have come to compose one of the major segments of the white supremacist movement in the United States.
In such tests northern Europeans always scored higher than Africans. In the United States—especially in the South—in the era of slavery and during the subsequent Jim Crow period of legal racial segregation , white supremacy enjoyed broad political support, as it did in contemporary European colonial regimes.
The doctrine was especially associated with violent groups such as the Ku Klux Klan KKK , which enjoyed some success in the United States particularly in the s , though many nonviolent individuals and groups also believed fervently in white supremacist ideas.
By the mids, however, overtly racist doctrines fell into deep disfavour across much of the Western world, a development that was hastened by both desegregation see racial segregation and decolonization.
As a result of hostility among some American whites toward the American civil rights movement , civil rights legislation, especially the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act , and Supreme Court decisions that invalidated many racially discriminatory laws, especially Brown v.
White supremacists, as well as many social conservatives , were troubled by the U. Their resentment contributed to the growth of various groups and movements that actively preached white supremacy, including the traditional KKK, various neo-Nazi organizations, and the religious Christian Identity groups.
Its purpose is the maintenance and defense of a system of wealth, power, and privilege. It underlies a spectrum of contemporary movements including neo-Confederates , neo-Nazism and Christian Identity.
Different forms of white supremacy put forth different conceptions of who is considered white though the exemplar is generally light-skinned, blond-haired, and blue-eyed, or 'Aryan' traits most common in northern Europe , and groups of white supremacists identify various racial and ethnic enemies, most commonly those of African ancestry , Indigenous peoples of the Americas and Australia, and Jews.
As a political ideology , it imposes and maintains social , political , historical , or institutional domination by white people. This ideology has been put into effect through socioeconomic and legal structures such as the Atlantic slave trade , Jim Crow laws in the United States , the White Australia policies from the s to the mids, and apartheid in South Africa.
Since the early s, the White power movement has been committed to overthrowing the United States government and establishing a white homeland using paramilitary tactics.
In academic usage, particularly in critical race theory or intersectionality , "white supremacy" can also refer to a social system in which white people enjoy structural advantages privilege over other ethnic groups, on both a collective and individual level, despite formal legal equality.
White supremacy has ideological foundations that date back to 17th-century scientific racism , the predominant paradigm of human variation that helped shape international relations and racial policy from the latter part of the Age of Enlightenment until the late 20th century marked by decolonization and the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in , followed by that country's first multiracial elections in White supremacy was dominant in the United States both before and after the American Civil War , and it also persisted for decades after the Reconstruction Era.
Frank Baum wrote: "The Whites, by law of conquest , by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians.
The Naturalization Act of limited U. Professor Leland T. Saito of the University of Southern California writes: "Throughout the history of the United States, race has been used by whites for legitimizing and creating difference and social, economic and political exclusion.
The denial of social and political freedom to minorities continued into the midth century, resulting in the civil rights movement.
After the mids, white supremacy remained an important ideology to the American far-right. Some academics argue that outcomes from the United States Presidential Election reflect ongoing challenges with white supremacy.
Psychologist Janet Helms suggested that the normalizing behaviors of social institutions of education, government, and healthcare are organized around the "birthright of On July 23, , Christopher A.
Wray , the head of the FBI , said at a Senate Judiciary Committee hearing that the agency had made around domestic terrorism arrests since October 1, , and that the majority of them were connected in some way with white supremacy.
Wray said that the Bureau was "aggressively pursuing [domestic terrorism] using both counterterrorism resources and criminal investigative resources and partnering closely with our state and local partners," but said that it was focused on the violence itself and not on its ideological basis.
A similar number of arrests had been made for instances of international terrorism. In the past, Wray has said that white supremacy was a significant and "pervasive" threat to the U.
On September 20, , the acting Secretary of Homeland Security , Kevin McAleenan , announced his department's revised strategy for counter-terrorism, which included a new emphasis on the dangers inherent in the white supremacy movement.
McAleenan called white supremacy one of the most "potent ideologies" behind domestic terrorism-related violent acts.
In a speech at the Brookings Institution , McAleenan cited a series of high-profile shooting incidents, and said "In our modern age, the continued menace of racially based violent extremism, particularly white supremacist extremism, is an abhorrent affront to the nation, the struggle and unity of its diverse population.
White supremacy has also played a part in U. Over the course of the 19th , 20th , and 21st centuries, material across the spectrum of academic disciplines has been taught with an overemphasis on White culture, contributions, and experiences, and a corresponding underrepresentation of non-White groups' perspectives and accomplishments.
He states that the language used to tell history minimizes the violent acts committed by White people over the centuries, citing the use of the words "discovery," "colonization," and " New World " when describing what was ultimately a European conquest of the western hemisphere and its indigenous peoples as examples.
In an analysis of American history textbooks, she highlights word choices that repetitively "normalize" slavery and the inhumane treatment of Black people p.
She also notes the frequent showcasing of White abolitionists and actual exclusion of Black abolitionists, as well as the fact that Black Americans had been mobilizing for abolition for centuries before the major White American push for abolition in the 19th century.
She ultimately asserts the presence of a masternarrative that centers Europe and its associated peoples White people in school curriculum, particularly as it pertains to history.
Elson provides detailed information about the historic dissemination of simplistic and negative ideas about non-White races.
White culture, at the turn of the 20th century. White supremacy has been depicted in music videos , feature films , documentaries , journal entries, and on social media.
The silent drama film The Birth of a Nation followed the rising racial, economic, political, and geographic tensions leading up to the Emancipation Proclamation and the Southern Reconstruction era that was the genesis of the Ku Klux Klan.
David Duke , a former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan , believed that the Internet was going to create a "chain reaction of racial enlightenment that will shake the world.
There certainly were hate groups before the Internet and social media. It could be to raise money, or it could be to engage in attacks on social media.
Some of the activity is virtual. Some of it is in a physical place. Social media has lowered the collective-action problems that individuals who might want to be in a hate group would face.
You can see that there are people out there like you. That's the dark side of social media. With the emergence of Twitter in , and platforms such as Stormfront which was launched in , an alt-right portal for white supremacists with similar beliefs, both adults and children, was provided in which they were given a way to connect.
Daniels discussed the emergence of other social media outlets such as 4chan and Reddit , which meant that the "spread of white nationalist symbols and ideas could be accelerated and amplified.
In the latest wave of white supremacy, in the age of the Internet, Blee sees the movement as having primarily become a virtual one, in which divisions between groups become blurred: "[A]ll these various groups that get jumbled together as the alt-right and people who have come in from the more traditional neo-Nazi world.
We're in a very different world now. A series on YouTube hosted by the grandson of Thomas Robb , the national director of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, "presents the Klan's ideology in a format aimed at kids — more specifically, white kids.
A sign that greets people who enter the town states " Diversity is a code for white genocide. The comic book super hero Captain America , in an ironic co-optation, has been used for dog whistle politics by the alt-right in college campus recruitment in In , Winston Churchill told the Palestine Royal Commission : "I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia.
I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place.
A number of Southern African nations experienced severe racial tension and conflict during global decolonization , particularly as white Africans of European ancestry fought to protect their preferential social and political status.
Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times under the Dutch Empire , and it continued when the British took over the Cape of Good Hope in Apartheid was introduced as an officially structured policy by the Afrikaner -dominated National Party after the general election of