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The majority of additions to the contrary are often rejected. The social trauma caused by unprecedented rates of casualties manifested itself in different ways, which have been the subject of subsequent historical debate.
Though many participants did not share in the experiences of combat or spend any significant time at the front, or had positive memories of their service, the images of suffering and trauma became the widely shared perception.
Such historians as Dan Todman, Paul Fussell , and Samuel Heyns have all published works since the s arguing that these common perceptions of the war are factually incorrect.
The rise of Nazism and fascism included a revival of the nationalist spirit and a rejection of many post-war changes. This conspiracy theory of betrayal became common, and the German populace came to see themselves as victims.
The widespread acceptance of the "stab-in-the-back" theory delegitimised the Weimar government and destabilised the system, opening it to extremes of right and left.
The same occurred in Austria which counterfactually considered himself not being responsible for the outbreak of the war and claimed not to have suffered a military defeat.
Communist and fascist movements around Europe drew strength from this theory and enjoyed a new level of popularity. These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or harshly affected by the war.
Adolf Hitler was able to gain popularity by using German discontent with the still controversial Treaty of Versailles. The 'Age of Totalitarianism' included nearly all the infamous examples of genocide in modern history, headed by the Jewish Holocaust, but also comprising the mass murders and purges of the Communist world, other mass killings carried out by Nazi Germany and its allies, and also the Armenian Genocide of One of the most dramatic effects of the war was the expansion of governmental powers and responsibilities in Britain, France, the United States, and the Dominions of the British Empire.
To harness all the power of their societies, governments created new ministries and powers. New taxes were levied and laws enacted, all designed to bolster the war effort ; many have lasted to the present.
Similarly, the war strained the abilities of some formerly large and bureaucratised governments, such as in Austria-Hungary and Germany.
In Austria, for example, most pigs were slaughtered, so at war's end there was no meat. To pay for purchases in the United States, Britain cashed in its extensive investments in American railroads and then began borrowing heavily from Wall Street.
President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late , but allowed a great increase in US government lending to the Allies. After , the US demanded repayment of these loans.
The repayments were, in part, funded by German reparations that, in turn, were supported by American loans to Germany.
This circular system collapsed in and some loans were never repaid. Macro- and micro-economic consequences devolved from the war. Families were altered by the departure of many men.
With the death or absence of the primary wage earner, women were forced into the workforce in unprecedented numbers.
At the same time, industry needed to replace the lost labourers sent to war. This aided the struggle for voting rights for women. World War I further compounded the gender imbalance, adding to the phenomenon of surplus women.
The deaths of nearly one million men during the war in Britain increased the gender gap by almost a million: from , to 1,, The number of unmarried women seeking economic means grew dramatically.
In addition, demobilisation and economic decline following the war caused high unemployment. The war increased female employment; however, the return of demobilised men displaced many from the workforce, as did the closure of many of the wartime factories.
In Britain, rationing was finally imposed in early , limited to meat, sugar, and fats butter and margarine , but not bread. The new system worked smoothly.
From to , trade union membership doubled, from a little over four million to a little over eight million. Britain turned to her colonies for help in obtaining essential war materials whose supply from traditional sources had become difficult.
Geologists such as Albert Ernest Kitson were called on to find new resources of precious minerals in the African colonies.
Kitson discovered important new deposits of manganese , used in munitions production, in the Gold Coast. Article of the Treaty of Versailles the so-called "war guilt" clause stated Germany accepted responsibility for "all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.
However neither of them interpreted it as an admission of war guilt. However, "Allied experts knew that Germany could not pay" this sum.
The total sum was divided into three categories, with the third being "deliberately designed to be chimerical" and its "primary function was to mislead public opinion This figure could be paid in cash or in kind coal, timber, chemical dyes, etc.
In addition, some of the territory lost—via the treaty of Versailles—was credited towards the reparation figure as were other acts such as helping to restore the Library of Louvain.
David Andelman notes "refusing to pay doesn't make an agreement null and void. The bonds, the agreement, still exist. The war contributed to the evolution of the wristwatch from women's jewellery to a practical everyday item, replacing the pocketwatch , which requires a free hand to operate.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. III biplane fighters near Douai , France, Peace treaties. Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies and territories, Partitioning the former Ottoman Empire , Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire , transfer of territories to other countries.
British Empire. Theatres of World War I. Main article: Causes of World War I. Main article: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Further information: Diplomatic history of World War I. Main article: African theatre of World War I. Main article: Naval warfare of World War I.
See also: Albania during World War I. Main article: Romania during World War I. Main article: Russian Revolution. Main article: Czechoslovak Legion.
Main article: Sinai and Palestine Campaign. Main article: American entry into World War I. Main article: Spring Offensive. Main article: Armistice of 11 November Main article: Aftermath of World War I.
Further information: Sykes—Picot Agreement. See also: Tanks in World War I. Main article: Aviation in World War I. Main article: Baralong incidents.
See also: Unrestricted submarine warfare. Main article: Blockade of Germany. Main article: Chemical weapons in World War I.
Main article: Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire. See also: Urkun. Main article: Rape of Belgium. Main article: World War I prisoners of war in Germany.
Main article: Conscription Crisis of Main article: Conscription in Australia. Main article: Conscription in the United Kingdom.
Main article: Diplomatic history of World War I. Collingwood , writing in Main article: World War I memorials. Further information: World War I in popular culture.
The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United Kingdom and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate.
June Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Economic history of World War I. World War I portal War portal. The Bolshevik government signed the separate peace with the Central Powers shortly after their armed seizure of power of November It joined the war on the side of the Central Powers on 29 October Retrieved 13 December Darkest Hours.
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